Category Archives: Accounting
There are a number of key financial ratios that can be used to assess a firm’s performance, competitiveness and ability borrow and pay debt. These key financial ratios cover a broad range of performance indicators including: (1) Profitability, (2) Asset Productivity, (3) Liquidity, (4) Solvency / Financial Leverage and (5) Market Value. This tutorial is the second of 5 on key financial ratios. Asset Productivity is covered in this one.
A proper income statement format comes in two varieties. The first one discussed here is the single step income statement and the second is the multiple step income statement format. There are key differences between the two and you should know when to use each for the right situation. The downloadable spreadsheet is at the end of the tutorial.
Cash flow analysis is so crucial because cash is king to any business. When evaluating a company’s performance, most stakeholders, both internal and external, are interested in how well the company is generating cash. Having a strong grasp of cash flow analysis can give you great insights into the company’s past, present and future performance. There are a few types of cash flow analysis methods available and in a series of tutorials, we will explore the cash flow statement, cash flow ratios, discounted cash flow and free cash flow.
This tutorial will give you step by step instructions on how to price a bond. If you were thinking of investing in bonds or looking to learn how to price a bond for your class, you’ve come to the right place! (There is a spreadsheet bond price calculator at the end of the tutorial)
Individual investors and companies that are fortunate enough to have excess cash sitting around may invest in debt securities that are either issued by the government or other private entities. Issuance of a bond is usually done by large organizations and governments. These organizations issue bonds because they have a financing need to improve their overall cash position.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are a set of common and widely accepted standards used by accountants and organizations in preparing financial information about a business entity. GAAP is borne out of some clearly defined objectives which include the necessity for business organizations to provide financial information that are useful for evaluation by external parties like creditors and investors. Consistency in the approach, format and presentation derived from the accounting framework and applicable laws makes the provided information very helpful in the decision making process for outside parties.
This tutorial covers the basics of inventory valuation. For merchandisers, manufacturers and wholesalers, inventory is often times the largest asset item represented on the balance sheet as a current asset. It is considered one of the more liquid assets because the basic assumption is that inventory owned by a company will be sold in the near future and converted to cash (the most liquid of any asset type). Inventory includes items that are ready for sale (finished goods), items in the process of being produced (work in progress) and raw materials that will be used to produce the final goods.
Accounting for Bonds is not a difficult topic to comprehend, nor is it a difficult task to execute. The journal entries involved are pretty straight forward and setting up the amortization schedule is also intuitive. Accounting for Bonds is a continuation of “The Basics and Pricing of Debt Securities” post. If you have not read that post or if you are unfamiliar with how bonds are priced, please do so before reading this article as it will only help you understand the concepts better.
Accounting as we know it can be separated into two distinct branches. Although both involve heavy analysis and interpretation of performance data, use of assumptions and reporting in some form or fashion, they are very different in terms of approach and ultimate purpose. For starters, one of the two deals with information that is prepared specifically for external users of the economic information pertaining to a company’s ongoing operations (financial accounting) and the other prepared specifically for a corporation’s internal users enabling them to make better operating decisions (management accounting).
Understanding the relationship between financial statements enable you to manage business operations better. These relationships stem from the accounting information system and the way double-entry accounting is setup. The accounting cycle makes continuous utilization of this system to output four standard financial statements at the end of each accounting period. Those statements are :
(1) The Income Statement (2) Statement of Owner’s (Shareholder’s) Equity (3) The Balance Sheet (4) The Statement of Cash Flows
While each statement tells its own story, there are specific links and relationships between them that provide insights into the “bigger picture”. Moreover, a thorough comprehension of the relationship between financial statements will make you feel more confident about the information you are looking at and in your ability to analyze the numbers.